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Overview of Brain Surgery Procedures

Brain surgery represents a critical area of medicine dedicated to treating conditions such as tumors, blood clots, aneurysms, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. Performed by skilled neurosurgeons and supported by specialized anesthesiologists, including neuroanesthesiologists for certain complex cases, these surgeries require precise expertise and post-operative care. The common brain surgery procedures include: Craniotomy Part of the skull is temporarily removed to address issues like tumors or blood clots. Aneurysm Clipping This surgical procedure, which may require craniotomy, involves isolating and blocking the abnormal bulging area in an artery (aneurysm) to prevent the risk of rupture. Biopsy A diagnostic procedure involving the removal of brain tissue for examination. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) An implantable device is used to treat movement disorders. Neuroendoscopy A minimally invasive technique for accessing or removing brain tissue through small incisions or natural openings. Posterior Fossa Decompression This procedure addresses conditions affecting the cerebellum and brainstem, such as Chiari malformations. Thrombectomy and Cerebral Aneurysm Repair Surgical instruments are guided through the bloodstream to treat blood clots or aneurysms without opening the skull. In certain cases, non-invasive stereotactic radiosurgery, such as Gamma Knife radiosurgery, is employed to target brain tumors with precision radiation, minimizing harm to surrounding healthy tissue. Related Diagnostic Procedures Other diagnostic procedures for brain disorders may include: Cerebral arteriogram CT scan EEG MRI PET scan X-rays of the skull for comprehensive evaluation Our Approach Our neurosurgeons are proficient in various craniotomy techniques, offering expertise in brain tumor surgery, aneurysm repair, and other specialized procedures, ensuring patient safety and optimal outcomes.








Types of Brain Surgeries including Spinal Procedures

Types of Brain Surgeries including Spinal Procedures

  • Acoustic neuroma surgery
  • Aneurysm surgery
  • Arteriovenous malformation surgery
  • Awake brain surgery
  • Brain aneurysm surgery
  • Brain rehabilitation
  • Brain stereotactic radiosurgery
  • Brain tumor surgery
  • Carotid angioplasty and stenting
  • Carotid endarterectomy
  • Chiari malformation surgery
  • Computer-assisted brain surgery
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • EC-IC Bypass (Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Surgery)
  • Endoscopic procedures
  • Epilepsy surgery
  • Facial reanimation surgery
  • Functional electrical stimulation
  • Hemifacial spasm surgery
  • Hyperhidrosis surgery
  • Intr...
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Diagnostic Tests and Imaging for Brain and Spinal Surgery

When it comes to brain and spinal surgery, a crucial aspect is the diagnostic tests and imaging that help healthcare professionals understand the condition of a patient's brain and spine in detail. One of the key imaging techniques used is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which provides detailed images of organs and structures within the body without using ionizing radiation. Here is a breakdown of how MRI works and its applications in brain and spinal surgery:

MRI Procedure

  • MRI involves a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to create images.
  • The MRI machine generates a strong magnetic field around the patient and uses radio waves to alter hydrogen atoms' alignment, producing signals that are converted into 2D images.

Advantages of MRI

  • MRI is preferred for ...
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Indications for Brain Operations

    Surgical Treatment for Brain Tumors:

    Brain surgery is typically the primary and most common treatment for individuals with brain tumors. Depending on the type of tumor, surgical removal coupled with ongoing monitoring may be the sole necessary treatment.

    Goals of Brain Tumor Surgery:

    • Complete removal (resection) of the brain tumor.
    • Partial removal of tumors situated near critical areas of the brain to alleviate symptoms and enhance the efficacy of other treatments.
    • Biopsy: A procedure to extract a small sample of the tumor for microscopic examination, aiding in confirming the diagnosis, determining the type of tumor, its malignancy, and grade, thereby facilitating appropriate treatment.


    The primary challenge in brain tumor surgery lies in maximizing tumor removal while minimizing damage to healthy brain tissue, necessitating skilled professionals, advanced technology, and a proficient surgical team.

    Preparation for Brain Tumor Surgery:

    • Imaging Tests: Prior to surgery, various imaging tests such as MRI, CT scan, and angiogram are conducted to determine the tumor's location and plan the surgical approach.
    • Fiducial Markers: Small markers are placed on the scalp pre-operation to aid the surgeon in accurate tumor localization during the surgery, enhancing precision and safety.

    Types of Brain Tumor Surgery:

    • Craniotomy: The most common surgical approach involving the removal of a piece of skull bone to access the tumor.
    • MRI-Guided Laser Ablation: A minimally invasive technique utilizing lasers to target and eliminate tumors, particularly beneficial for complex tumors near sensitive brain areas.
    • Endoscopic Brain Tumor Surgery: A minimally invasive procedure enabling tumor removal through small openings, including endonasal endoscopic surgery, offering access to inaccessible brain regions without damaging surrounding structures.

Conditions Treated Through Brain and Spinal Surgery

    Listed below are some of the conditions that are treated through brain and spinal surgery:

    • Acoustic neuroma
    • Aneurysms
    • Arteriovenous malformation
    • Astrocytoma
    • Balance problems
    • Benign peripheral nerve tumor
    • Brachial plexus injury
    • Brain aneurysm
    • Brain AVM (arteriovenous malformation)
    • Brain lymphoma
    • Brain metastases
    • Brain tumor
    • Cavernous malformations
    • Central nervous system vascular malformations
    • Cerebral palsy
    • Cervical spinal stenosis
    • Chiari malformation
    • Chondrosarcoma
    • Chordoma
    • Cluster headache
    • Craniopharyngioma
    • Craniosynostosis
    • CSF leak (Cerebrospinal fluid leak)
    • Cushing syndrome
    • Delayed sleep phase
    • Dural arteriovenous fistulas
    • Dystonia
    • Ependymoma
    • Epilepsy
    • Essential tremor
    • Esthesioneuroblastoma
    • Glioblastoma
    • Glioma
    • Head and neck cancers
    • Hemifacial spasm
    • Hemorrhage
    • Huntington's disease
    • Hydrocephalus
    • Hyperhidrosis
    • Intracranial hematoma
    • Intracranial hemorrhage
    • Intracranial venous malformations
    • Lumbar spinal stenosis
    • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors
    • Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS)
    • Medulloblastoma
    • Meningioma
    • Metachromatic leukodystrophy
    • Movement disorders
    • Moyamoya disease
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD)
    • Myoclonus
    • Nasal and paranasal tumors
    • Neurofibromatosis
    • Oligodendroglioma
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Pediatric brain tumors
    • Peripheral nerve injuries
    • Peripheral nerve tumors
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Pituitary tumors
    • Scoliosis
    • Seizures
    • Spina bifida
    • Spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
    • Spinal cord injury
    • Spinal cord lymphoma
    • Spinal cord tumor
    • Spinal stenosis
    • Stroke
    • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    • Subdural hemorrhage
    • Tourette syndrome
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    • Trigeminal neuralgia
    • Venous malformation
    • Vertebral tumor

Preparing for Brain and Spinal Surgery

    Once your treatment plan has been designed, you will receive both written and verbal instructions to prepare for your upcoming brain surgery. Here are some general guidelines that may help you in planning for the procedure:

    Preoperative Testing:

    Within two weeks of your scheduled surgery, you will need a history and physical examination. This may include blood tests, chest x-ray, EKG, and MRI or CT scans. You may also need to visit the Preoperative Center for instructions on eating, drinking, and taking necessary medications before surgery, as well as discussions about anesthesia.

    Consent Forms:

    Your surgeon will discuss the benefits and risks of the surgery with you and provide necessary information before asking you to sign consent forms.


    You will be advised to continue taking your regular medications before and after surgery. Additional medications such as Dexamethasone (Decadron®) for brain swelling and anti-seizure medications may also be prescribed.

    MRI or CT Scans:

    Prior to surgery, a special MRI or CT scan may be taken to assist the surgeon in navigating during the procedure. Small fiducial stickers may be placed on your head for this purpose.


    You will typically be admitted on the day of surgery, where necessary IVs and catheters will be placed.

    Surgical Experience:

    Your surgeon, along with assistants and anesthesiologists, will be present during the surgery. The duration of the surgery will depend on the size and location of the tumor. Your family can wait in the OR waiting room and will be updated by the staff on the surgery progress.

    Following these guidelines and instructions will help ensure that you are well-prepared for your brain surgery procedure.

What to Expect During and After Brain Operation


    You will likely be admitted to the hospital on the day of your surgery.


    An intravenous (IV) line will be placed in your arm for medication and fluid administration. Additional IVs and catheters may be inserted after you have been sedated, and these procedures will be thoroughly explained during your preoperative visit.

    Surgical Team:

    The operation will be conducted by your surgeon along with one or more assistants. Anesthesiologists and nurses will also be present in the operating room to ensure the surgery proceeds safely.


    The length of the surgery will depend on the size and location of the tumor or the specific brain condition being treated.


    Your family will be asked to wait in the designated waiting area, where they will receive updates during the procedure. Following the completion of the surgery, your surgeon will provide a detailed update to your family.

    After the Surgery:

    Immediate Post-Operative Care:

    Post-surgery, you will likely stay in the hospital overnight. You will be monitored with IVs, a heart monitor, and a bladder catheter. A mask may be used to deliver oxygen more efficiently, and a gauze dressing will be placed on your head for a couple of days.

    Recovery Room:

    After leaving the hospital, you will be transferred to a neurosurgery nursing unit for continued care, with a typical hospital stay lasting three to four days.

    Pain Management:

    Pain is typically minimal after the surgery. However, if you experience pain or headaches, inform your healthcare provider so that your medication can be adjusted.

    Postoperative Activities:

    Starting the day after surgery, it is expected that you will be able to get out of bed, eat, and take short walks. Once you are eating and drinking normally, the IVs will be removed.


    Nurses will monitor your food and fluid intake and your urinary output. You might be advised to drink less than usual for a few days after the surgery.

    Personal Comfort:

    Bringing comfortable clothing, such as a bathrobe, for your postoperative stay is recommended.


    After your discharge from the hospital, you should contact your surgeon's office to schedule a postoperative appointment. Additionally, a postoperative MRI or CT scan is typically performed the day after the surgery to assess the outcome.

Eligibility Criteria for Brain and Spinal Surgeries

    The eligibility criteria for brain and spinal surgeries are an essential consideration to ensure the safety and successful outcomes of the procedures. The criteria help in identifying suitable candidates for these intricate surgeries. Below are the key points to be considered for the eligibility criteria:

    Patient Age:

    The age of the patient plays a significant role in determining eligibility for brain and spinal surgeries. Typically, individuals of specific age groups are considered more suitable candidates based on the nature of the surgery.

    Medical History:

    An in-depth review of the patient's medical history is crucial to assess any pre-existing conditions or risk factors that could impact the surgical outcome. Conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or any previous neurological conditions need to be thoroughly evaluated.

    Diagnostic Tests:

    Prior diagnostic tests, including imaging studies like MRI or CT scans, are essential to determine the extent of the condition that necessitates surgery. These tests help in planning the surgical approach and assessing the overall health of the patient.

    Surgical Risk Assessment:

    A comprehensive evaluation of the surgical risk factors, such as anesthesia tolerance, potential complications, and overall surgical readiness, is essential to ensure the safety of the patient during and after the procedure.

    Patient Consent and Understanding:

    It is imperative that the patient demonstrates a clear understanding of the surgical procedure, its risks, benefits, and potential outcomes. Informed consent from the patient or their legal representative is a crucial aspect of the eligibility criteria.

    Multidisciplinary Team Consultation:

    In complex cases, involving a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and other specialists, can help in determining the eligibility of the patient for brain and spinal surgeries.

    These eligibility criteria serve as a guideline to assess the suitability of patients for brain and spinal surgeries, ensuring that the procedures are performed on individuals who are most likely to benefit from the intervention while minimizing risks and complications.

Risks and Benefits of Brain and Spinal Surgery

    Brain surgery is a complex procedure that involves treating various brain abnormalities and issues in the brain and its surrounding areas. As with any surgical procedure, there are inherent risks and potential benefits associated with brain surgery. It is important to understand these factors before undergoing such a procedure.

    Risks Associated with Brain Surgery:

    1. Infection: There is a risk of developing an infection at the surgical site or in the brain tissue.
    2. Bleeding: Bleeding within the brain or at the surgical site can occur during or after the procedure.
    3. Swelling: Swelling in the brain can lead to increased intracranial pressure, causing complications.
    4. Neurological Deficits: Damage to brain tissue during surgery can result in neurological deficits such as weakness, paralysis, or sensory changes.
    5. Stroke: The manipulation of blood vessels during surgery can lead to a stroke.
    6. Cognitive Impairment: Some patients may experience cognitive changes or memory problems after brain surgery.

    Benefits of Brain Surgery:

    1. Treatment of Brain Abnormalities: Brain surgery can effectively treat conditions such as tumors, aneurysms, epilepsy, and arteriovenous malformations.
    2. Relief of Symptoms: Surgery can alleviate symptoms caused by pressure on the brain, hemorrhages, or nerve damage.
    3. Improved Quality of Life: Successful brain surgery can lead to an improved quality of life for patients experiencing neurological conditions.
    4. Potential Cure: In cases of brain tumors or vascular abnormalities, surgery may offer a potential cure or long-term management of the condition.
    5. Increased Life Expectancy: By addressing serious brain conditions, surgery can contribute to a longer life expectancy for patients.

    It's essential to discuss the specific risks and benefits of brain surgery with your healthcare provider to make an informed decision about your treatment plan. Additionally, post-operative care and rehabilitation play a crucial role in ensuring a successful recovery from brain surgery.

Recovery and Rehabilitation Process

    The recovery process from brain surgery encompasses a hospital stay, post-operative monitoring, and tailored rehabilitation based on the surgery type. Patients may initially experience swelling or bruising, common post-surgery effects that gradually decrease. To manage common post-surgery symptoms such as pain, especially headaches, and nausea, medications are administered. Strong pain relievers may lead to constipation, for which laxatives are provided.

    Imaging tests like CT or MRI scans are crucial in the days following surgery for monitoring the surgical site and detecting any complications, such as bleeding. The length of the hospital stay varies, with less invasive procedures typically requiring shorter stays. For example, brain tumor removal surgeries often result in a 4 to 6-day hospital stay.

    Rehabilitation is an integral part of recovery, aiming to restore functions like strength, mobility, and communication. The rehab team might include physical therapists, speech-language pathologists, and occupational therapists, focusing on comprehensive recovery.

    The recovery trajectory is unique for each patient, influenced by the surgery's nature and personal health requirements. With a focus on monitoring and tailored rehabilitation, the aim is to support patients towards optimal recovery.

Advantages of Choosing MediBuddy for Brain and Spinal Surgeries

    When opting for brain and spinal surgeries, choosing MediBuddy offers several advantages that can enhance your treatment and overall experience:

    Specialized Neurosurgeons:

    MediBuddy provides access to highly skilled neurosurgeons who specialize in treating conditions of the brain and spine. These specialists have extensive knowledge and expertise in performing intricate surgical procedures to ensure optimal outcomes.

    Comprehensive Assessment:

    By selecting MediBuddy for your surgery, you benefit from a comprehensive assessment of your condition. Our neurosurgeons conduct thorough evaluations, considering the entire nervous system's anatomy and physiology. This approach enables them to make well-informed decisions regarding your treatment options, leading to personalized and effective care.

    Informed Treatment Plans:

    After a detailed examination, MediBuddy's neurosurgeons develop customized treatment plans tailored to your specific needs. These plans encompass non-surgical, minimally invasive, and surgical options, along with pain management techniques. You can trust that the recommended treatment will be based on the latest practices, prioritizing your safety and well-being throughout the process.

    Expertise in Pain Management:

    Post-surgery, managing pain is crucial for successful recovery. MediBuddy's neurosurgeons excel in pain management strategies, particularly important for spinal surgeries due to the sensitivity of spinal nerves. They employ various methods, including medications, physical therapy, and continuous monitoring to ensure your comfort and facilitate healing.

    Supportive Healing Process:

    At MediBuddy, our team is dedicated to supporting your healing journey. Our neurosurgeons work closely with patients, offering guidance and assistance during the recovery period. They provide ongoing care, including follow-up appointments and personalized recommendations, to promote a smooth and effective healing process.

    Choosing MediBuddy for brain and spinal surgeries not only guarantees expert medical care but also ensures a patient-centered approach that prioritizes your well-being and recovery. Experience the benefits of specialized treatment and compassionate support by partnering with MediBuddy for your surgical needs.

Why MediBuddy Surgery Care?

Enhanced Quality of Care

Constant support, a network of premium hospitals and top-tier surgeons.

End-to-End Management

Your only focus should be to go and get your procedure done. Leave the rest to us.

Continuous Guidance

Fingertip-access to all the information you will need. Any problem you may face—resolved with one phone call.

Lower Costs and easy financing support

HealthCare can be expensive. We bring you the best deals, EMI options and pricing models without compromising on quality.

Our users love us

Trusted service by MediBuddy

First I would like convey my thanks to medibuddy and their Care Buddy who assisted me till the discharge. Medibuddy provided hassle free consultation and for the operation. The entire insurance policy was taken care without involvement and it helped me to take care of myself. Finally I would like to thank the Unity hospital staff and their doctor

Surya Kumar

Hyderabad Hydrocele
Massive Thanks!

I sincerely thank MediBuddy for coordination and commitment towards the service rendered in making my total knee replacement surgery hassle-free. Your work is truly commendable, and I appreciate your professional attitude. So easy to talk to and work with, very helpful always! Massive thanks.

Abhilasha Vasant

Delhi Total knee replacement
Friendly Care Buddy

The experience with MediBuddy and their Care Buddy was great. I had a fast approval on my claim. I have not faced any difficulties throughout the process. I would like to mention special for the Care Buddies for their continuous follow ups starting with the consultation till hospital discharge. Thanks team for following up even after the surgery.

Prasanna Kumar

Bengaluru Lipoma

Frequently Asked Questions

Brain surgery, also known as neurosurgery, involves procedures to treat various conditions affecting the brain or its surrounding structures. This may include tumor removal, aneurysm repair, or addressing neurological disorders.

Brain surgeries include craniotomy, endoscopic procedures, tumor removal, aneurysm clipping, and more. Spinal procedures encompass spinal fusion, laminectomy, discectomy, and spinal cord stimulation, among others.

Diagnostic tests such as MRI, CT scans, angiography, and neurological examinations are commonly used to assess the condition and plan surgical interventions.

Brain surgery may be recommended for conditions such as tumors, aneurysms, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury. Spinal surgery may be indicated for herniated discs, spinal stenosis, spinal cord tumors, or vertebral fractures.

Brain surgery can address conditions like brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), while spinal surgery can treat herniated discs, spinal deformities, spinal cord injuries, and more.

Preparing for surgery involves undergoing preoperative tests, following instructions regarding medications and fasting, arranging transportation, and discussing any concerns with the surgical team.

During surgery, patients are typically under general anesthesia. Afterward, they may experience pain, fatigue, and swelling, and will be monitored closely for any complications.

Eligibility depends on factors such as the patient's overall health, specific condition, and the risks associated with surgery. A thorough evaluation by a neurosurgeon determines suitability for surgery.

Risks include infection, bleeding, nerve damage, and anesthesia-related complications. Benefits may include symptom relief, improved function, and potentially life-saving interventions.

Recovery involves rest, pain management, physical therapy, and gradually returning to normal activities. The duration and specifics of recovery vary depending on the procedure and individual factors.

Providers like MediBuddy offer access to specialized neurosurgeons, comprehensive assessments, informed treatment plans, expertise in pain management, and supportive care throughout the healing process.

Yes, minimally invasive approaches are increasingly utilized for certain brain and spinal procedures, offering benefits such as smaller incisions, reduced risk of complications, and quicker recovery times.

Long-term outcomes vary depending on the condition treated and individual factors. In many cases, surgery can lead to symptom improvement, enhanced quality of life, and better overall health outcomes.

Depending on the condition, alternatives may include medication, physical therapy, radiation therapy, or watchful waiting. The most appropriate treatment approach is determined based on individual circumstances.

Patients can maintain regular follow-up appointments with their healthcare providers, adhere to recommended lifestyle modifications, and communicate any concerns or changes in symptoms for ongoing management and support.